Friday, 12 July 2013

primary, secondary data collection,


 

Primary data are those that you have collected yourself, whereas secondary data originate elsewhere. Generally, you will find that you are expected to collect primary data when using quantitative methods, but that secondary data are more acceptable when you are using a qualitative method. 

Sources of Primary Data:

Sources for primary data are limited and at times it becomes difficult to obtain data from primary source because of either scarcity of population or lack of cooperation. Regardless of any difficulty one can face in collecting primary data; it is the most authentic and reliable data source. Following are some of the sources of primary data.

Experiments: Experiments require an artificial or natural setting in which to perform logical study to collect data. Experiments are more suitable for medicine, psychological studies, nutrition and for other scientific studies. In experiments the experimenter has to keep control over the influence of any extraneous variable on the results.

Survey: Survey is most commonly used method in social sciences, management, marketing and psychology to some extent. Surveys can be conducted in different methods.
  • Questionnaire: is the most commonly used method in survey. Questionnaires are a list of questions either open-ended or close -ended for which the respondent give answers. Questionnaire can be conducted via telephone, mail, live in a public area, or in an institute, through electronic mail or through fax and other methods.
  • Interview: Interview is a face-to-face conversation with the respondent. In interview the main problem arises when the respondent deliberately hides information otherwise it is an in depth source of information. The interviewer can not only record the statements the interviewee speaks but he can observe the body language, expressions and other reactions to the questions too. This enables the interviewer to draw conclusions easily.
  • Observations: Observation can be done while letting the observing person know that he is being observed or without letting him know. Observations can also be made in natural settings as well as in artificially created environment.

A secondary data research project involves the gathering and/or use of existing data for purposes other than those for which they were originally collected. These secondary data may be obtained from many sources, including literature, industry surveys, compilations from computerized databases and information systems, and computerized or mathematical models of environmental processes.

Sources of Secondary Data:
Secondary data is often readily available. After the expense of electronic media and internet the availability of secondary data has become much easier.
Published Printed Sources: There are variety of published printed sources. Their credibility depends on many factors. For example, on the writer, publishing company and time and date when published. New sources are preferred and old sources should be avoided as new technology and researches bring new facts into light.
  • Books: Books are available today on any topic that you want to research. The use of books start before even you have selected the topic. After selection of topics books provide insight on how much work has already been done on the same topic and you can prepare your literature review. Books are secondary source but most authentic one in secondary sources.
  • Journals/periodicals: Journals and periodicals are becoming more important as far as data collection is concerned. The reason is that journals provide up-to-date information which at times books cannot and secondly, journals can give information on the very specific topic on which you are researching rather talking about more general topics.
  • Magazines/Newspapers: Magazines are also effective but not very reliable. Newspaper on the other hand are more reliable and in some cases the information can only be obtained from newspapers as in the case of some political studies.
Published Electronic Sources: As internet is becoming more advance, fast and reachable to the masses; it has been seen that much information that is not available in printed form is available on internet. In the past the credibility of internet was questionable but today it is not. The reason is that in the past journals and books were seldom published on internet but today almost every journal and book is available online. Some are free and for others you have to pay the price.
  • e-journals: e-journals are more commonly available than printed journals. Latest journals are difficult to retrieve without subscription but if your university has an e-library you can view any journal, print it and those that are not available you can make an order for them.
  • General websites; Generally websites do not contain very reliable information so their content should be checked for the reliability before quoting from them.
  • Weblogs: Weblogs are also becoming common. They are actually diaries written by different people. These diaries are as reliable to use as personal written diaries.
Unpublished Personal Records: Some unpublished data may also be useful in some cases.
  • Diaries: Diaries are personal records and are rarely available but if you are conducting a descriptive research then they might be very useful. The Anne Franks diary is the most famous example of this. That diary contained the most accurate records of Nazi wars.
  • Letters: Letters like diaries are also a rich source but should be checked for their reliability before using them.
Governement Records: Government records are very important for marketing, management, humanities and social science research.
  • Census Data/population statistics:
  • Health records
  • Educational institutes records
Public Sector Records:
  • NGOs's survey data
  • Other private companies records

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