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PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL

According to Ray Wild, production planning is defined as follows:
"Production Planning is concerned with the determination, acquisition and arrangement of all facilities necessary for future operations.

Production planning means to fix the production goals and to estimate the resources which are required to achieve these goals. It prepares a detailed plan for achieving the production goals economically, efficiently and in time. It forecasts each step in the production process. It forecasts the problems, which may arise in the production process. It tries to remove these problems. It also tries to remove the causes of wastage.

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL


Planning and control generally involve the planning of manufacturing process. Especially it consists of the planning of routing, scheduling, dispatching, inspection, and coordination, control of materials, methods, machines, tools and operating times etc. The ultimate objective of PPC is to organize the supply and movement of materials and labour, machines utilization and related activities, in order to bring about the desired manufacturing results in terms of quality, quantity, time and place.


Production planning consists of the evaluation and determination of production inputs such as labour, machinery and equipment, materials and utilities to achieve the desired goal. The productivity of an organisation can be improved by better planning efforts.

Production planning and control can be defined as “the process of planning or deciding on the resources the firm will require for its future manufacturing operations and of allocating and time scheduling these resources to produce the desired products on time at the least total cost.


ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL

There are basically four elements in PPC, which are stared as below:
1.Routing
2.Scheduling
3.Dispatching
4.Follow up

1.Routing

  Routing is the planning process, which is undertaken to find the best possible path for manufacturing a certain product. It determines what work will be done on a product and how it will be done. It establishes the operations, their path and sequence, and the proper class of machines that require performing specific operations. Routing prescribes the flow of work in the plant and it is related to the considerations of layout, temporary location for raw materials and components and material handling system.

The main aim of routing is to determine the best and cheapest Production Planning and control
Routing procedure involves the following different activities:
(1) An analysis of the article to determine what to make and what to buy.
(2) To determine the quality and type of material
(3) Determining the manufacturing operations and their sequence.
(4) A determination of lot sizes
(5) Determination of scrap factors
(6) An analysis of cost of the article

2.Scheduling

 The next step after routing is scheduling. Scheduling is the allocation of resources applying the limiting factors of time and cost to perform a collection of tasks. It involves the assignment of starting and completion times for the various operations to be performed. Therefore scheduling can bring productivity in shop floor by providing a schedule/ routine for processing a set of jobs. Scheduling finds the total time needed for manufacturing of a product. It also finds the time required in each machines to perform each task. The purpose of scheduling is to execute a customer’s order well in time. For example, if we order for a car, the manufacturer will estimate the time required for its production and then will give us the delivery date. Scheduling is that phase of production and control, which rates the work in order of its priority and then provide for its release to the plant at the proper time and in correct sequence. Thus, scheduling is concerned with when the work shall be performed on a product. Routing and scheduling activities are complementary to each other. One cannot route properly without having previously designed schedule and scheduling is impossible without the knowledge of required routing.

The essence of scheduling is to make allocation decisions pertaining to the starting and finishing times for tasks. Scheduling can be classified into Single machine scheduling, Flow shop scheduling and Job shop scheduling.

Scheduling is mainly concerns with time element and priorities of a job. The pattern of scheduling differs from one job to another which is explained as below:

Production schedule: The main aim is to schedule that amount of work which can easily be handled by plant and equipment without interference.
Master Schedule: Scheduling usually starts with the preparation of the master schedule which is weekly or monthly break-down of the production requirement for each product for a definite time period. This would enable the production manager to shift the production from one product to another as per the changed production requirements. This forms a base for all subsequent scheduling acclivities. A master schedule is followed by operator schedule which fixes total time required to do a piece of work with a given machine or which shows the time required to do each detailed operation of a given job with a given machine or process.
Best scheduling is not always possible because of the following conditions:
· Physical plant facilities of the type required to process the material being scheduled.
· Personnel who possess the desired skill and experience to operate the equipment and perform the type of work involved and,
· Necessary materials and purchased parts.

While preparing schedules, the types of orders and their promised delivery dates must be taken into consideration. Some orders may call for overtime work because they have to be delivered soon. Such rush orders should receive priority over repeat orders, which can be scheduled for completion in the normal course.

Dispatching

 Dispatching is the transition from planning phase to action phase. In this phase, the worker is ordered to start manufacturing the product. Dispatching involves the actual granting of permission to proceed according to plans already laid down. In dispatching, orders are issued in terms of their priority.

The dispatch section of the PPC is responsible for the following task:

· Checking the availability of material and then taking appropriate action to have it transferred from the main stores to the point at which it is needed.
· Ensuring that all production aid is ready when needed and then having them issued to manufacturing departments.
· Obtaining specific drawings from the drawing office.
· Informing the process section that production is commencing.
· At the conclusion of the manufacturing, ensure that all the drawings, layout and tools are withdrawn and returned to their correct location.
Dispatching is an important step as it translates production plans into actual production

  Follow up or expediting


Once production has been set in motion, it is necessary to check that it is proceeding according to the plan. Every production programme involves determination of the progress of work, removing bottlenecks in the flow of work and ensuring that the productive operations are taking place in accordance with the plans. It spots delays or deviations from the production plans. It helps to reveal defects in routing and scheduling, misunderstanding of orders and instruction, under loading or overloading of work etc. All problems or deviations are investigated and remedial measurers are undertaken to ensure the completion of work by the planned date.

Generally production is assumed to progress as expected. But there may be differences which may arise due to the following reasons:

· Materials may be delivered late or may not be delivered at all.
· Associated departments may have fallen behind in their own production.
· There may be excessive absenteeism on the part of the worker.
· The customer may insist on changing the specification or delivery date.
· Machines may break down.
· There may be errors in drawings.
· There may be too many rejections due to poor material quality.
Other things related to production are inspection and corrective actions.
Inspection: This is mainly to ensure the quality of goods. It can be required as effective agency of production control.

Corrective measures: Corrective action may involve any of those activities of adjusting the route, rescheduling of work, changing the workloads, repairs and maintenance of machinery or equipment, control over inventories, poor performance of the employees. Certain personnel decisions like training, transfer, demotion etc. may have to be taken. Alternative methods may be suggested to handle peak loads.

 ADVANTAGES OF PRODUCTION, PLANNING AND CONTROL

 Following are the advantages of using PPC in any plant:
· PPC forecasts sales orders and makes sales order more economical in production.
· It co-ordinates the operations of several departments.
· It ensures better service to customers by delivering quality goods within the specified time period.
· Reduces production costs through orderly scheduling of work activities and reducing wastages.
· Reduces employee idle time.
· Ensures a better control of material and contributes to efficient buying.

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