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Types of Research

The research which is done for knowledge enhancement, the research which does not have immediate commercial potential. The research which is done for human welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. It is called basic,pure,fundamental research. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge, not to create or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research. Basic research lay down the foundation for the applied research. Dr.G.Smoot says “people cannot foresee the future well enough to predict what is going to develop from the basic research” Eg:-how did the universe begin?
Applied research is designed to solve practical problem of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledges sake. The goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. It focus on analysis and solving social and real life problems. This research is generally conducted on large scale basis, it is expensive. As such, it often conducted with the support of some financing agency like government , public corporation , world bank, UNICEF, UGC,Etc,. According to hunt, “applied research is an investigation for ways of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems” for example:- improve agriculture crop production, treat or cure a specific disease, improve the energy efficiency homes, offices, how can communication among workers in large companies be improved? Applied research can be further classified as problem oriented and problem solving research. Problem oriented research:- research is done by industry apex body for sorting out problems faced by all the companies. Eg:- WTO does problem oriented research for developing countries, in india agriculture and processed food export development authority (APEDA) conduct regular research for the benefit of agri-industry. Problem solving:-this type of research is done by an individual company for the problem faced by it. Marketing research and market research are the applied research. For eg:- videocon international conducts research to study customer satisfaction level, it will be problem solving research. In short, the main aim of applied research is to discover some solution for some pressing practical problem.
Quantitative research aim to measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project for future period. In social sciences, “quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships”. The objective of qualitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Statistics is the most widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research. Statistical methods are used extensively with in fields such as economics and commerce. Quantitative research involving the use of structured questions, where the response options have been Pre-determined and large number of respondents is sales of soap industry interms of rupees cores and or quantity interms of lakhs tones for particular year, say 2008,could be researched, compared with past 5 years and then projection for 2009 could be made.
Qualitative research presents non-qualitative type of analysis. Qualitative research is collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative research research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors, and description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective and uses very different methods of collecting information,mainly individual, indepth interviews and focus groups. The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open ended. Small number of people are interviewed in depth and or a relatively small number of focus groups are conducted. Qualitative research can be further classified in the following type. I. Phenomenology:-a form of research in which the researcher attempts to understand how one or more individuals experience a phenomenon. Eg:-we might interview 20 victims of bhopal tragedy. II. Ethnography:- this type of research focuses on describing the culture of a group of people. A culture is the shared attributes, values, norms, practices, language, and material things of a group of people. Eg:-the researcher might decide to go and live with the tribal in Andaman island and study the culture and the educational practices. III. Case study:-is a form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a detailed account of one or more cases.

Longitudinal Research

Longitudinal research is a type of research method used to discover relationships between variables that are not related to various background variables. This observational research technique involves studying the same group of individuals over an extended period of time.
Data is first collected at the outset of the study, and may then be gathered repeatedly throughout the length of the study. In some cases, longitudinal studies can last several decades.

 Cross-sectional research

 Cross-sectional research is a research method often used in developmental psychology, but also utilized in many other areas including social science and education. This type of study utilizes different groups of people who differ in the variable of interest, but share other characteristics such as socioeconomic status, educational background, and ethnicity.

Basic Biomedical Research is conducted to increase understanding of fundamental life processes, such as discovering the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) — one-half of the genetic code of life — or investigating the genetics of lipid disease. The AHA funds this type of research.

Clinical Research addresses important questions of normal function and disease using human subjects.

Directed Research is conducted by an investigator in response to an outside request to explore a specific scientific area or question. Corporate or foundation donations tagged for research allow the AHA to sponsor such projects as the ASA-Bugher Foundation Centers for Stroke Prevention Research and the AHA-Jon Holden DeHaan Foundation Myogenesis Research Centers.

Fundamental Research
studies life processes that are universal in their application to scientific knowledge.

Investigator-Initiated Research
investigates a question or hypothesis that the researcher has defined. The AHA's publicly donated dollars are used to support this type of research.

Outcomes Research
focuses upon the end results of health care, the tangible and quantifiable manifestations of disease upon patients and society and the determinants of these outcomes.

Population Health Research
is the science and art of studying the distribution and determinants of health status as influenced by social, economic and physical environments, human biology, health policy and services and of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health at the population levels.

Strategically Focused Research
focuses on science areas that the association has determined are important to achieving its mission and strategic objectives.

Targeted Research is a synonym for directed research.

Translational Research
takes a result from basic or fundamental science and studies its applicability in the clinical or human situation.  Another type of translational research addresses the adoption of prevention and treatment strategies that have been demonstrated to be effective through clinical research in the care of patients and in population-based prevention of conditions such as heart disease and stroke.

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