A sequence of , made on a set of objects included in the sample drawn from population is known as statistical data.
(1) Ungrouped Data:
Data which have been arranged in a systematic order are called raw data or ungrouped data.
(2) Grouped Data:
Data presented in the form of frequency distribution is called grouped data.
Collection of Data:
The first step in any enquiry (investigation) is collection of data. The data may be collected for the whole population or for a sample only. It is mostly collected on sample basis. Collectionof data is very difficult job. The enumerator or investigator is the well trained person who collects the statistical data. The respondents (information) are the persons whom the information is collected.
Types of Data:
There are two types (sources) for the collection of data.
(1) Primary Data (2) Secondary Data
(1) Primary Data:
The primary data are the first hand information collected, compiled and published by organization for some purpose. They are most original data in character and have not undergone any sort of statistical treatment.
Example: reports are primary data because these are collected, complied and published by thepopulation census organization.
(2) Secondary Data:
The secondary data are the information which are already collected by some one (organization) for some purpose and are available for the present study. The secondary data are not pure in character and have undergone some treatment at least once.
Example: Economics survey of England is secondary data because these are collected by more than one organization like Bureau of statistics, Board of Revenue, the Banks etc…
Primary data are collected by the following methods:
Methods of Collecting Secondary Data:
The secondary data are collected by the following sources:
Difference between Primary and Secondary Data:
The difference between primary and secondary data is only a change of hand. The primary data are the first hand data information which is directly collected form one source. They are most original data in character and have not undergone any sort of statistical treatment while the secondary data are obtained from some other sources or agencies. They are not pure in character and have undergone some treatment at least once.
For Example: Suppose we interested to find the average age of MS students. We collect the age’s data by two methods; either by directly collecting from each student himself personally or getting their ages from the university record. The data collected by the direct is called primary data and the data obtained from the university record is called secondary data.
Editing of Data:
After collecting the data either from primary or secondary source, step is its editing. Editing means the of collected data to discover any error and mistake before presenting it. It has to be decided before hand what degree of accuracy is wanted and what extent of errors can be tolerated in the inquiry. The editing of secondary data is simpler than that of primary data.
Data can be collected using three main types of surveys: censuses, sample surveys, and administrative data. Each has advantages and disadvantages. As students, you may be required to collect data at some time. The method you choose will depend on a number of factors.
A census refers to data collection about every unit in a group or population. If you collected data about the height of everyone in your class, that would be regarded as a class census. There are various reasons why a census may or may not be chosen as the method of data collection:
In a sample survey, only part of the total population is approached for data. If you collected data about the height of 10 students in a class of 30, that would be a sample survey of the class rather than a census. Reasons one may or may not choose to use a sample survey include:
Administrative data are collected as a result of an organization's day-to-day operations. Examples include data on births, deaths, marriages, divorces and car registrations. For example, prior to being issued a marriage license, a couple must provide the registrar with information about their age, sex, birthplace, address and previous marital status. These administrative files can be used later as a substitute for a sample survey or a census.
Data Collection Methods: Pros and Cons
Each method of data collection has advantages and disadvantages.
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Friday, 12 July 2013
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