Standard Costing- Labour VariancesDirect Labour Cost Variance:
Due to the difference between the standard cost of direct labour which has been specified for the achieved production & the actual direct wage that has been incurred, direct labour cost variance arises.
The formula is:
Standard Cost – Actual Cost
Analysis of labour variances also, like material variance, can be done into two components, viz., direct labour rate variance & direct labour efficiency variance.
Labour Rate Variance:
The difference between the standard rate & the actual rate of pay, multiplied by the actual hours worked is known as labour rate variance.
The formula is:
Actual hours worked * Rate difference
Or, Actual hours worked * (Standard rate – Actual rate)
Or, (Actual hours worked * Standard rate) – (Actual hours worked * Actual rate)
Or, Standard rate of actual hours worked – Actual cost
Reasons of occurrence of Labour rate variance:
- Using labours that are different in grades from those who are in the technical specification.
- During seasonal or emergency, using rates which are above or below the standard rate.
- Paying to workers who are unable to earn established piece rates; day rates which are guaranteed.
- Standard rates which are established are not paid to the new workers.
- Supervisor’s having personal favoritism but without proper authority, towards promoting employees to higher grades & rates.
When there is a difference between actual efficiency & the expected efficiency, the labour efficiency variances occurs & the calculation of the same is done as the difference between the actual hours that has been worked & the actual hours that should have been worked for producing the actual output (i.e. standard hours of actual output), multiplied by the standard rate.
The formula is:
Standard Rate * Hours difference
Or, Standard Rate * (Standard hours of actual output – Actual output)
Or, (Standard rate * Standard hours) – (Standard rate * Actual hours)
Or, Standard cost of standard hours – Standard cost of actual hours
Reasons of occurrence of Labour efficiency variance:
- There is a change in the method of production.
- More efficient machinery has been purchased.
- There is a breakdown in the machine.
- Spoiled work is corrected.
- Materials & suitable machines are not available.
- The efficiency or non efficiency of the direct workers who are engaged on production.
Total labour cost variance = Rate variance + Efficiency variance
Illustration 1: For a particular job, the data are given below:
Standard hours 150 hours
Standard rate of wages per hour $ 5
Actual hours 100 hours
Actual rate of wages per hour $ 6
Calculate: (a) Labour cost variance; (b) Labour rate variance; & (c) Labour efficiency variance.
(a) Labour Cost variance: Standard Cost – Actual Cost
(150 * $ 5) – (100 * $ 6) 150 Favourable
(b) Labour Rate variance: Actual hours * (Standard rate – Actual rate)
100 * (5-6) 100 Adverse
(c) Labour Efficiency variance: Standard rate * (Standard hours – Actual hours)
5 * (150 -100) 250 Favorable
Check: Labour Cost Variance = Rate + Efficiency 150 Favorable
A single product which passes through two operating departments is produced by a company. The following data are shown by the standard cost card for the product:
Standard rate ($) Standard time (hours) Total ($)
Department M 2.70 1.1 2.97
Department N 3.00 0.80 2.40
For the current month, the production is 4000 units. In the two departments, the actual labour costs are as follows:
Hours Cost ($)
Department M 4000 12908
Department N 3600 10200
Find the labour cost, labour rate & labour efficiency variances.
Standard hours required to produce 4000 units:
Department M 4000 units * 1.1 hours 4400 hours
Department N 4000 units * 0.80 hours 3200 hours
Standard Labour cost: $
Department M 4400 hours @ $ 2.70 11880
Department N 3200 hours @ $ 3.00 9600
Actual Labour cost:
Department M 12908
Department N 10200
Labour Cost Variance: Standard cost – Actual cost
$ 21480 - $ 23108 1628 Adverse
Labour Rate Variance: (Actual hours * Standard Rate) – Actual Cost
Department M (4000 * 2.70) - 12908 2108 Adverse
Department N (3600 * 3.00) – 10200 600 Favourable
1508 Adverse 1508 Adverse
Labour Efficiency Variance: Standard Cost – (Actual hours * Standard rate)
Department M 11880 - (4000 * 2.70) 1080 Favourable
Department N 9600 - (3600 * 3.00) 1200 Adverse
120 Adverse 120 Adverse
Check: Labour Cost Variance = Rate + Efficiency 1628 Adverse
Idle Time Variance:
The calculation of an idle time variances is done when due to abnormal circumstances such as lock-outs, strikes, breakdown of machines, shortage of materials, failure of power etc., there is wastage of time. The segregation of the variance which has been occurred as a result of abnormal wastage of time from the efficiency variance can be done because the time lost has not been occurred as a result of lack of efficiency of employees.
The standard cost of actual hours of idleness which occurred as a result of abnormal circumstances is represented by idle time variance. The variance is always adverse as a result of which investigating the cause of abnormal idle time becomes necessary. The formula is:
Standard rate * Hours of idle time
On the basis of actual hours that have been worked, the calculation of efficiency variance shall be done & on the basis of actual hours attended, the calculation of labour rate variance shall be done.
The further analysis can be done of the efficiency variance into direct labour mix (or gang composition) variance & direct labour revised efficiency variance, in the cases where different grades of direct labour are employed.
Online Live Tutor Relationship between the variances, Idle Time Variance:
We have the best tutors in Economics in the industry. Our tutors can break down a complex Relationship between the variances, Idle Time Variance problem into its sub parts and explain to you in detail how each step is performed. This approach of breaking down a problem has been appreciated by majority of our students for learning Relationship between the variances, Idle Time Variance concepts. You will get one-to-one personalized attention through our online tutoring which will make learning fun and easy. Our tutors are highly qualified and hold advanced degrees. Please do send us a request for Relationship between the variances, Idle Time Variance tutoring and experience the quality yourself.
Online Labour Variances, Direct Labour Cost Variance Help:
If you are stuck with an Labour Variances, Direct Labour Cost Variance Homework problem and need help, we have excellent tutors who can provide you with Homework Help. Our tutors who provide Labour Variances, Direct Labour Cost Variance help are highly qualified. Our tutors have many years of industry experience and have had years of experience providing Labour Variances, Direct Labour Cost Variance Homework Help. Please do send us the Labour Variances, Direct Labour Cost Variance problems on which you need help and we will forward then to our tutors for review.